What is CPU of a Computer? Definition & Parts of CPU

Hello friends, today we are going to learn about what is CPU of a Computer? How does CPU work? And what are the main parts of the CPU?

So, without wasting time, let’s first understand what is CPU?

What is CPU
What is CPU of a Computer?

What is CPU?

Definition of CPU -: CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It is a small chip which is attached to our desktops, laptops, and mobiles. It is an important part of the computer which is used in the computer to process the instructions given by the user.

Process means calculating anything and answering it.

Let’s understand this with an example.

For example – If I ask you to add 2 and 4 and give me answer, then by calculating, you will say its answer is 6, and if I ask you what will be the answer of 12*4? Then you tell me 48. So this same thing is called Process or Processing.

CPU also performs the work of processing in the computer such as Performing Mathematical operations, Performing logical operations, etc. based on the input given by the user.

Apart from the Central Processing Unit, the CPU is also known as Processor, Central Processor, or Microprocessor.

So whenever someone asks you about a Processor or Microprocessor, then you have to understand that you are being asked about the Central Processing Unit.

CPU is also called the brain of the computer because all computer work is done through the CPU.

CPU takes instruction from both hardware and software and performs the calculations. It also helps to coordinate between the input and output devices.

CPU uses some of its main parts or components to perform all these tasks.

Let’s know about those main parts or components of the CPU.

Main Parts of CPU

These are the three main components inside the CPU.

  1. Memory or Storage Unit
  2. Control unit
  3. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit

Let’s now understand one by one about these main parts of the CPU.

Memory or Storage Unit

Memory Unit works by temporarily storing the data, information, and instructions used in processing. It also stores the intermediate results obtained from the processing.

Memory Unit transmits data and information to the rest of the units when required.

Memory unit is also known as the Internal storage unit, Main memory, Primary storage, and Random Access Memory (RAM).

The size of the memory unit affects the speed and efficiency of the process.

Functions of the memory unit

  • It stores all the data and instructions required for processing.
  • It stores the intermediate results obtained from the processing.
  • The Memory Unit stores the final result of the process before passing the result obtained from the processing to the output device and then returns it to the output device.

Control unit

The control unit performs the task of controlling all the work done in the computer. It reads the store data and instruction in the memory unit and tells ALU to perform the operation according to that instruction and information.

Functions of this unit are -:

  • It controls the transfer of data and instructions between other units of the computer.
  • It creates coordination between all the units so that all the units can do their respective work well.
  • It takes the instructions from the memory unit and moves the process according to that instruction.
  • It does not process or store data.

Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) is responsible for all arithmetic and logical operations that occur in a computer.

ALU has two main parts.

  • Arithmetic unit
  • Logic unit

Arithmetic unit – Its function is to perform arithmetic operations like – add, event, fold, division, etc.

Logic unit – Its functions are to perform logical operations like compare, select, match, etc.

Friends, by this time you must have understood what is CPU and which are its main parts.

Let’s now understand how the CPU works?

How does CPU work?

The CPU works in three steps -:

  1. Fetching data
  2. Decode instructions
  3. Execution of instructions

Fetching data

To process any program, first we have to bring that program in RAM. After the program enters RAM, the instruction of that program is temporarily stored in the informational register of the memory unit from where the control unit takes those instructions one by one.

Decode instructions

The control unit decodes the data received from the memory unit one by one, that means it understands those instructions and tells ALU to act according to those information.

Execution of instructions

ALU performs mathematical and logical operations based on the information received from the control unit.

So the CPU works like this and executes our program.

If you have read the whole thing, then you must have fully understood what is the CPU? How does CPU work? and which are the main parts of the CPU? 



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Jeetu Sahu is A Web Developer | Computer Engineer | Passionate about Coding, Competitive Programming, and Blogging

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