The computer was not invented to entertain, send emails or play games, but was invented to perform a large number of mathematical calculations.

Today we can do almost all work on the computer, whether it is complex calculations, or searching something on the Internet.

Earlier computers are very large in size, yet they could not do much work. They was able to do some basic calculations only. While today’s computers are small in size but are quite powerful, in which we can do almost every kind of work.

Such a difference in the performance of the computer has come due to frequent technological changes.

let’s learn from the beginning what is the history and evolution of computer

Table of Contents

## History And Evolution of Computer

In ancient times, when people did not have any facilities and people hunt to live their lives, that time if they need to do some calculations, they used sticks, stones, and bones.

As time went gone, his brain also started developing and he developed many machines for calculating.

Let’s know about those machines

- Abacus
- Napier’s Bones
- Slide Rule
- Pascaline
- Stepped Reckoner
- Jacquard loom
- Arithmometer
- Difference Engine
- Analytical Engine
- Scheutizian Calculation Engine
- Tabulating machine
- Harvard mark 1
- Z1
- Atanasoff-Berry Computer
- ENIAC
- EDVAC
- UNIVAC 1
- Osborne 1

let’s know in detail about all these machines.

## 1. Abacus

History of computers started with the invention of Abacus. It is considered to be the first computer. The word Abacus is derived from the Greek word “abax” which means “Calculating Board”.

Abacus was invented in Babylonia in 2400 BC but was first used in China in 500 BC. It believed that Tim Cranmer has invented Abacus. Abacus is most commonly used in China, Japan, and Russia.

**Functions**: Abacus is a mechanical device that is used in mathematical calculations. Abacus can perform basic arithmetic operations. This was the first calculating device in the world.

## 2. Napier’s Bones

John Napier was a Scottish Mathematician who made many discoveries related to numbers and he also made Napier’s Bones machine in 1614.

In this machine, he used 9 different elephant tooth bones to mark and divide the strip or number, hence the name of this machine was Napier Bones.

**Functions**: Napier Bones was a fast calculating machine, which was used to derive multiplication, division, square, and cube root.

## 3. Slide Rule

**William oughtred** created the Slide Rule in 1622. The slide rule was based on Napier’s logarithms.

**Functions**: Slide Rule was used in multiplication, division, root, logarithm, trigonometry. But it could not be used for adding or subtracting.

## 4. Pascaline

French mathematician Blaise Pascal created “Pascaline” in 1642. Pascal made this machine to help his father and a tax accountant.

Bliss Pascal built the “Pascaline” machine at just 19 years of age. It was a wooden box with a range of gears and wheels. When one wheel was rotated, it rotated the other wheel.

**Functions**: In Pascaline, only addition, subtraction could be done, due to this reason this machine was also called Adding Machine. Pascaline was a very expensive machine.

## 5. Stepped Reckoner

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz made the Stepped Reckoner in 1672 by slightly further improving the machine made by Bliss Pascal.

**Functions**: This machine which is made by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz could add and subtract as well as Multiply and divide.

## 6. Jacquard loom

The Jacquard Loom was a mechanical loom built by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801.

**Functions**: In this machine, punch cards were used as input devices.

## 7. Arithmometer

It was a mechanical calculator made by Thomas De Colmar in 1820, it was the first useful, reliable, and commercially successful calculating machine.

The Arithmometer was the first machine to be built in large quantities, whereas the earlier machine was made with only one or two for demo/test.

## 8. Difference Engine

In 1822 the deference engine was created by the British mathematician Charles Babbage. It was a mechanical computer, which used steam to run.

Charles Babbage had to perform daily mathematic and statistic calculations, which could be a mistake if done by a person. To automate this, Charles Babbage created Difference Engine so that there is no mistake in the calculation.

However, Charles Babbage’s difference engine could not be completed due to a lack of money.

## 9. Analytical Engine

Charles Babbage built the analytical engine in 1834. Who used to take the instructions through the punch card. Through this addition, subtraction, multiplication could be done.

The analytical engine was the world’s first general-purpose computer. The programs that were written in the analytical engine are written by Lady Augusta Ada Byron, so Lady Augusta Ada Byron is known as the first computer programmer.

## 10. Scheutizian Calculation Engine

The Scheutizian Calculation Engine was built by Pearl George Scheutiz in 1843, based on the Difference engines of Charles Babbage.

**Functions**: Scheutizian Calculation Engine was the first printing calculator.

## 11. Tabulating machine

In 1890, the American scientist Herman Hollerith built the Tabulating Machine, which was run using electricity.

**Functions**: The Tabulating Machine was an electro-mechanical machine. Which was also used in the US census. Hollerith also made the punch card, which was used as an input device.

Hollerith also started Hollerith’s Tabling Machine Company which became International Business Machine (IBM) in 1924.

## 12. Harvard mark 1

Harvard Mark 1 is also known as IBM’s Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Harvard Mark 1 was created by Dr.Howard Aiken between 1937-1944.

Harvard Mark 1 was the first electro-mechanical calculator which was based on the punch card. Harvard Mark 1 was 50 feet long and 8 feet high.

## 13. Z1

This was the first programmable machine that was made by Konrad Zeiss in Germany between 1936-1938. All the inputs in Z 1 were given by the punch tape and the output that came was also through the punch tape.

## 14. Atanasoff-Berry Computer

It was the first electronic digital computing device that was made by Professor John Atanasoff and his student Cliffer Berri in the years 1939-1942.

## 15. ENIAC

ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, it was the first electronic general-purpose computer.

The ENIAC was completed in 1946, which was made by John Mauchly and J.K. Made by Presper Eckert. He made this computer in Moore school of engineering U.S.A. In ENIAC 18000 vacuum tubes were used and the ENIAC size was 20 * 40 sq ft.

## 16. EDVAC

EDVAC stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer. It was designed by von Neumann.

This was the first computer in which data was also stored along with programs, in which the concept of binary language was used for the first time. Von Neumann contributed most to the development of modern computers.

## 17. UNIVAC 1

UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer) was the first commercial computer sold in the market. UNIVAC was created in 1951 by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly.

## 18. Osborne 1

Osborne was the first portable computer released by Osborne Computer Corporation in 1981.

## Conclusion

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